AADL Self-Checkout Kiosk
UX Research, Ux Design, UI Design
Our client, Ann Arbor District Library, came to our team with their self-checkout kiosk which was outdated, hard to use, and was causing many problems for patrons, including high failure rates. My team was tasked with a complete overhaul of the design, including user research, UX design, UI design, and user testing. Our final deliverable is currently being implemented.
With a vibrant community of patrons and situated in a college town full of University students, Ann Arbor District Library serves a vast array of community members in everything from informational materials to community events and services. With the existing self-checkout kiosk interface, patrons are unable to efficiently and effectively check out library materials, leading to a need of assistance or avoidance of them altogether. Patrons often prefer the self-checkout kiosks, due to independence and speed, and so a re-designed interface was needed to enable patrons to complete their desired tasks.
Project Manager & Design Lead
Without asking for additional assistance, enable users to complete their desired check-out tasks with the kiosk
Improve the current interface flow to increase efficiency, completion and satisfaction among patrons
Allow users equal opportunity to use the kiosk with enhanced accessibility
PHASE 1: User Research
Upon approaching the kiosk, the user is greeted with a blank screen and no evident calls to action. Once they scan their card, they are brought to the main screens where they can scan and view items, but again communication and calls to action fall short. Finally, the printing flow is easy to miss and there is no evident success message upon finishing.
The primary purpose of conducing research was to identify the existing usability problems with the self-checkout kiosk which prevent patrons from achieving their desired tasks. We determined common pain points associated with the self-checkout process and identified what patrons hope to accomplish with the kiosk. This helped us understand best practices regarding kiosk interface design in order to improve the efficiency, accessibility and usability of the kiosk.
We developed an affinity diagram to better understand the pain points users have with the existing interface.
We identified the following four themes:
Personas & journeys
Based on our research findings, we created three personas and their corresponding journeys to represent our wide user demographic.
We developed our design requirements based on our research findings. Our requirements center around four main themes: convenience, independence, physical and process. Below are the requirements of highest priority.
Streamline kiosk interactions
Keep interface screens to a minimum
Clear, consistent messaging and language throughout the interface
Instructions on how and when to scan card and items
Indications of error states
Indication of user currently signed in
Maintain functionality of scanning items
Maintain ability to view items out, requests and fees
Add renew functionality
Adhere to the AADL visual brand guide
Phase 2: Design
We began by exploring ideas through quick sketches. Here, we ideated freely and without restraint.
Based on our various ideas, we chose one concept which we felt best met our requirements and created a paper prototype.
We conducted a round of user testing with our paper prototype, finding difficulties around terminology and task completion. We iterated our our design to fix found issues and created a mid-fidelity digital prototype.
After another round of user testing, we integrated findings into a final digital prototype. This final iteration included visual design based on the AADL brand guidelines.
Our final design consists of four main interactions:
Phase 3: Validation
To validate our new design, we tested the existing interface against our re-designed interface between subjects in a lab setting. We recruited subjects to reflect the age range and technological literacy of our personas.
Introduction and preliminary questions
Tasks, in scenario form, using either the existing or new interface
End questionnaire using SUS and our own questions (shown below)
Time (in minutes) to complete necessary tasks
Number of successfully completed tasks
Feelings of independence after self-checkout process
Overall convenience of self-checkout
Analysis of the validation results showed that our design was, in fact, more successful than the existing interface. The box plots show that the SUS scores and median were higher for the new interface, and the current interface has a wider range. Based on the SUS questions, we can tell subjects felt more independent using the new interface and felt it was more convenient to use. Based on the bar graph, subjects took more time to complete 4 out of 6 tasks on the current interface. This indicates users were more easily able to complete their desired tasks with the new interface. Additionally, it shows there was more hesitation and uncertainty when using the current interface.
The final prototype can be found here.
Our new design meets all design requirements and better enables patrons to achieve their desired tasks with ease and feelings of independence.
Cover photo mockup courtesy of https://www.anthonyboyd.graphics/mockups